The research was funded by the "Twelfth Five-Year" National Infectious Diseases Special Science and Technology Project, and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Medical and Health Science and Technology Innovation Project (2016-I2M-1-013). Other organizations participating in the research include the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Gansu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hunan Provincial Tuberculosis Control Center, and Henan Provincial Infectious Disease Hospital. The first author of the article is Research Fellow Lei Gao, et al., and the corresponding author is Research Fellow Qi Jin.
The research project Epidemiological Survey and Cohort Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection, led by research fellow Lei Gao of the Institute of Pathogen Biology and based on more than 30,000 subjects in five places in China, has previously reported the important epidemiological data and epidemic characteristics of the infection. The findings included the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection rate in Chinese rural population, the effect of BCG vaccination on the results of LBTI screening, and the annual first-time onset rate of the latent infection group. Recently, the team has also reported the findings of the cohort study on disease onset of LBTI in China. It has found that the annual incidence of active tuberculosis in LBTI populations was 0.87% (0.68% -1.07%). Specifically, the risk of disease onset of men and patients with a history of tuberculosis was 2.36 times and 5.40 times that of women and patients without a history of tuberculosis. Of people with latent infection, about 10% had a history of tuberculosis. If they are targeted for preventive treatment, the onset rate may be reduced by 44%. The team reports for the first time such data as the onset rate of latent tuberculosis infection in China and the influencing factors. It also says that a rapid decline in the onset rate of latent infection can be achieved through latent infection treatment based on patients’ past medical history. The study has laid a solid basis for the team to design and implement further research in this field. It also provides an important reference for China to establish intervention strategies.